Drug: Ketamine hydrochloride
Ketamine Street Name: K, Ket, Special K, Vitamin K, Vit K, Kit Kat, Keller, Kelly’s day, Green, Blind squid, Cat valium, Purple, Special la coke, Super acid, and Super C. Slang for experiences related to Ketamine or effects of Ketamine include, “k-hole,” “K-land,” “baby food,” and “God.”
Ketamine Drug Effects: Ketamine addiction produces a dissociative state in a user. Effects can range from rapture to paranoia to boredom. The user feels its hallucinogenic effects and experiences impaired perception. Ketamine commonly elicits an out-of-body or near-death experience; it can render the ketamine drug user comatose.
Ketamine is similar molecularly to phencyclidine (PCP or “Angel Dust”). Ketamine addiction produces similar effects, including numbness, loss of coordination, sense of invulnerability, muscle rigidity, aggressive/violent behavior, slurred or blocked speech, exaggerated sense of strength, and a blank stare. There is depression of respiratory function but not of the central nervous system, and cardiovascular function is maintained. Since ketamine is an anesthetic, it stops the user from feeling pain, which could lead the user to cause inadvertently injury to himself/herself. Ketamine may relieve tension and anxiety, is purported to be a sexual stimulant, and intensifies colors and sounds.
The effects of a Ketamine ‘high’ usually last an hour but they can last for 4-6 hours, and 24-48 hours are generally required before the user will feel completely “normal” again. Effects of chronic use of Ketamine may take from several months to two years to wear off completely. Low doses (25-100mg) produce psychedelic effects quickly. Large doses can produce vomiting and convulsions and may lead to oxygen starvation to the brain and muscles; one gram can cause death. Flashbacks may even occur one year after use. But there is help. It is possible to help someone who suffers from Ketamine addiction.
Ketamine Description: Ketamine, or ketamine hydrochloride, is a non-barbiturate, rapid-acting dissociative anesthetic used on both animals and humans; it also has been used in human medicine for pediatric burn cases and dentistry, and in experimental psychotherapy. It is being abused by an increasing number of young people as a “club drug,” and is often distributed at “raves” and parties, which can create ketamine addiction.
Ketamine Street Use: Ketamine is a liquid and the most potent ways of using it are by injecting it intramuscularly or intravenously.
Ketamine Dependency: Long-term effects include tolerance and possible physical and/or psychological dependence.
Ketamine Withdrawal Symptoms:
- Chills and sweating
Ketamine Legal Status: Ketamine is legally used but only for medical purposes. It is marketed as Ketalar, or Ketaset, to veterinarians and medical personnel and considered a controlled substance only in California, Connecticut, New Mexico, and Oklahoma.
A bill was introduced in Congress in the spring of 1997 to schedule ketamine as a Schedule II Drug, having a high abuse potential with severe psychic or physical dependence liability. Cocaine and methamphetamine are other examples of Schedule II Drugs.
DAMAGE TO HEALTH
Ketamine is a common dissociative anesthetic for human and veterinary use. Its hydrochloride salt is sold as Ketanest®, Ketaset®, and Ketalar®. Pharmacologically, ketamine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist, and, like other substances of this class like tiletamine, memantine, and phencyclidine (PCP), induces a state referred to as “dissociative anesthesia.” As with other pharmaceutical drugs of this kind, ketamine is used extra-medically as a recreational drug.
Ketamine addiction has a large range of effects in humans, such as analgesia, dissociative anesthesia, hallucination, arterial hypertension, and bronchodilation. It is mainly used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, generally in combination with some sedative drug. Other uses are sedation in intensive care, analgesia (especially in emergency medicine), and treatment of bronchospasm. It is also a common anesthetic in veterinary medicine.
Ketamine is a chiral compound. The majority of pharmaceutical preparations of ketamine are racemic; nonetheless, reportedly some brands have (mostly undocumented) differences in enantiomeric proportions. The more active enantiomer, S-Ketamine, is also accessible for medical use under the brand term Ketanest S.
Ketamine was originally reported in 1962 as part of an effort to discover a safer anesthetic alternative to Phencyclidine (PCP), which was more likely to cause hallucinations and seizures. The substance was first administered to American soldiers during the Vietnam War, but today in the developed world its use on humans has been dramatically curtailed because of exaggerated concern about its potential to cause emergence phenomena, including out-of-body experiences in clinical practice. Nonetheless, it is still used widely in veterinary medicine, or as a battlefield anesthetic in developing countries.
Ketamine’s side effects eventually made it a common psychedelic in 1965. The substance was used in psychiatric and other academic studies through the 1970s, culminating in 1978 with the publishing of John Lilly’s The Scientist, a book documenting the author’s ketamine, LSD, and isolation tank experiments. The incidence of recreational ketamine use rose through the end of the century, particularly in the context of raves and other parties. The augmentation of its illegal use and ketamine addiction prompted ketamine’s placement in Schedule III of the United States Controlled Substance Act in August 1999. In the United Kingdom, it became illegal and labeled a Class C substance on January 1, 2006. In Canada, ketamine is considered as a Schedule I narcotic. In Hong Kong, as of year 2000, Ketamine is controlled under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. It can only be used legitimately by health professionals, for university research purposes, or with a doctor’s prescription.